The definition of management is an administration in an organization either in the form of a business, non-profit or government agency. Management can include organizing an organization’s activities and coordinating employees or volunteers to achieve goals.
In other words, management can be defined as the process carried out to achieve the goals of the organization in achieving objectives such as planning, building the organization and organizing, moving and controlling and controlling by working with the team.
Based on the understanding of management above, it can be concluded that the definition of management is a systematic science to understand why and why humans can work together to produce something useful for others.
Definition of management is based on etymology
Management is a word derived from ancient French, namely management which can be interpreted as the art of carrying out and regulating.
Why is management equated with art?
Understanding of art is all that is created by humans and contains beauty so as to arouse the feelings of others.
By knowing about the definition of art, of course, you have obtained an overview of the relationship of management science with art.
Broadly speaking, the relationship between art and management is that management aims to create something that is regularly organized beforehand. Surely this will arouse the feelings of each employee to work together.
Thus management science can teach about the process of getting organizational goals together.
Management science also teaches about the process of getting organizational goals together.
Someone who formulates and implements management is called the manager.
Definition of management according to experts
Many management experts explain the definition or understanding of management. We can make this opinion of management experts as a guide to help us understand management science.
Here are 5 examples of management understanding according to experts
1. Mary Parker Follet
Management understanding according to Mary Parker Follet is an art in completing each job through other people.
Based on this explanation, the task of a manager is to direct and manage others to achieve organizational goals.
2. George R Terry
Management’s understanding according to George R Terry is a typical process which consists of actions such as organizing planning, moving and controlling
All actions are taken to achieve the goals or objectives to be achieved by using existing resources such as humans and other resources.
3. Renville Siagian
The definition of management according to Renville Siagian is one of the business fields that are engaged in providing services that are run by trained and experienced farmers.
4. Lawrence A Appley
The definition of management is an art to achieve certain goals that are carried out by others / other people’s business.
5. James A F Stoner
The definition of management is the process of planning, organizing, leadership, and controlling the members of the organization and the use of existing resources in the organization to achieve the stated goals.
There were 2 (two) important events for the development of management science in the 20th century. The first event that occurred in 1776 was when Adam Smith published the book The Wealth of Nation.
Adam Smith said that excellence can be obtained by a company with a division of labor or the details of the work in a special task.
Adam Smith himself took the example of a safety plant that employed ten people and each worker did a specific job.
The second important event in management science is the industrial revolution in Britain. When this industrial revolution began a lot of human power was replaced by the use of machines.
This has an impact on production activities from home to the factory location. Of course, this makes business owners need solutions to help them.
They are looking for ways for them to carry out several jobs such as calculating requests, ensuring the availability of raw materials, and assigning someone to direct employees.
This is where management science began to be developed by experts.
In general, the management function according to experts has many similarities. Management functions, in general, can be divided into 4 (four) functions, namely:
1. Planning management function
Planning or planning management functions are activities to set company goals and develop strategies to achieve predetermined goals.
The manager’s job in planning must be able to review and evaluate all plans before the decision is taken.
Managers will choose the most appropriate plan to achieve the company’s goals.
This is because planning is the main foundation that greatly influences the course of the company.
Division of planning levels in management functions:
Top Level Planning: planning at this stage has a strategic nature. The Top Level Planning focuses on the organization’s long-term goals and top management responsibilities.
Middle-Level Planning: In this intermediate stage, planning is administrative in nature that emphasizes the strategies undertaken to achieve the goals set out in the planning. Middle-Level Planning is made for middle management.
Low-Level Planning: planning at this stage is operational in the company and is focused on how to produce. The people who are most responsible for Low-Level Planning are executive management.
Some activities that must be done in planning:
- Determine goals and targets
- Develop strategies or ways to achieve the stated goals
- Prepare the resources needed
- Determine the standard of goals or targets to be achieved
Good planning must fulfill the following conditions:
- Must have clear objectives
- Simple so it’s not difficult to run
- There is an analysis of the work to be done
- Must be flexible and can follow developments
- Have harmony between responsibility and purpose
- Planning must be used effectively and efficiently
Benefits of planning
- Can make the task given can be implemented properly and organized
- Avoid mistakes that can occur
- Facilitate supervision
- Can be used as a basic guide in carrying out work.
2. Organizing (Organizing)
The next management function is organizing or organizing which can be defined as the activities of regulating human resources and physical resources that the company has used to carry out plans to achieve its objectives.
Organizing is carried out to divide large activities into small activities. With this organizing management function, it can facilitate the manager’s job to supervise and also determine the right HR to carry out these tasks.
The activities contained in the organizing function are:
- Determine resources and assign tasks and procedures needed
- Establish lines of authority and responsibility in the organizational structure
- Recruit, select, train and develop human resources
- Determine the position of the workforce in the right position
Some elements in organizing:
- Grouping workforce to be directed to work together
- Running activities that have been determined
- Focused activities to achieve the target
Benefits of organizing functions:
- It is very possible to do the division of employee duties in accordance with the circumstances
- Can create special abilities for employees while carrying out tasks
- Any existing personnel can know the responsibilities and tasks that will be carried out to achieve the goals.
Directing is an action that aims to ensure that all working groups can strive to achieve goals in accordance with management planning.
This direction serves to improve efficiency and also work effectively to the maximum and also create a healthy and dynamic work environment.
Some activities carried out for the direction function are:
- Conduct leadership processes, mentoring, and also provide motivation to employees so that they can work effectively and efficiently to achieve goals
- Providing tasks and explanations about work with routine.
- Explain the policies that have been set at the time of planning.
4. Controlling (supervision)
Controlling work is something that must be done so that work can go hand in hand with the vision, mission, regulations and work program. This control can be done with supervision, supervision or audit.
The controlling function is run to assess performance that is based on the standards that have been made and also used for evaluation if needed.
Examples of supervision functions
- Evaluate the success of achieving targets by looking at the goals that have been set.
- With this control, corrections or clarifications can be made if there are irregularities
- Give solutions to overcome problems that occur both during a planning and when implementing plans.
Things that must be considered so that the controlling function can run effectively and efficiently:
Routing, a manager must determine the way or path to find a safe point when an error occurs
Scheduling (time setting), the manager must be able to do scheduling to set the time during supervision.
Dispatching (implementation): controlling is the execution of the work that aims to get the job done quickly.
Follow-up is a manager’s action to find a problem and the leader will find a way out of the problem.
A good supervisory function must be adjusted to the needs of a company. Therefore the company must pay attention to the factors that influence the supervisory function.
Management elements in the management function
In carrying out the Definition of Management and functions above, an organization or company needs auxiliary devices.
Each device or element is related and cannot be separated from each other. If one of the elements of management does not work well, the management function cannot run well.
The following are 6 important elements in the management function:
1. Man (Human Resources)
Human Resources are the most important element Definition of Management because all activities within the company will be carried out by humans. Starting from planning to carrying out activities to achieve the goals carried out by humans.
If there are no human resources, there will never be activity within the company or organization.
The course of the company’s or organization’s activities cannot be separated from the costs that can be measured by the value of money.
The availability of sufficient money or capital will make management more free to achieve the ultimate goal of the company, for example, profit-seeking goals.
Therefore, money is something that must be calculated correctly by the company in order to achieve its goals.
3. Material (material)
The availability of materials or raw materials is another important management element that you need. Besides requiring Human Resources, the management function also requires material. This material can be in the form of semi-finished material (raw material) or finished material …
The material is something that companies need as a means of the company to achieve goals. Therefore, human and material resources cannot be separated.
4. Machines (machines)
Company activities cannot be separated from the machine. With the use of machines, the management function can run effectively and efficiently.
In addition, the machine can provide convenience and generate greater profits.
5. Methods (methods)
In function To facilitate the Definition of Management and implementation of work, a method or often called the Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) is needed.
The method is used as a way of carrying out work by considering the purpose, time and also available facilities.
But a good method will not work well if the human resources who run it do not have the ability and experience.
6. Market (market)
The last management element is the Market or market. Market or market is an important element of management because the market is a place that determines whether a company’s products can be demanded or not.
To determine the market must be studied in depth to be right on target. You can segment the market by looking at geographical, demographic, gender, age, etc. conditions.
If the results are not suitable for your product, then you should re-evaluate and replace the market or market.
To master the market, the products that are sold must be of high quality and in accordance with the tastes of consumers. In addition, we must consider the purchasing power or purchasing ability of consumers.
Definition of management, in general, can be defined as a process that is done to achieve goals or objectives in the organization by working together in a team.
To achieve the goals of the company or organization, the benefits of management are as follows:
- Can determine the most effective and efficient strategy to achieve the goals that have been determined.
- Job evaluation and review of the situation can be done
- Can maintain employee health, company finances, and sectors related to the company.
- Reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of the company against opportunities and threats.
So it can be concluded that the management function can be applied wherever and whenever. Almost all activities or activities require management.
Such is the explanation Definition of Management, Functions of Management and Elements of Management.
If you want to ask about the discussion above then you can ask it through the comments column.